Raw Materials Used In The Construction Industry

These include iron, aluminum, and copper as well as clay, sand gravel, limestone, wood, and stone. Concrete makes up 42% of all materials.


Concrete is a combination of cement and aggregate. The cement is mixed and hydrates, eventually becoming a stone-like substance. This material is referred to as concrete when used in its generic sense. Concrete is usually strengthened with steel rods or bars to make it stronger. Reinforced concrete is also known as reinforced concrete. A vibrator is used to remove any air bubbles that could weaken the structure. Concrete is the most popular material of our time due to its durability, formability, and ease of transport.


Metal can be used to cover exterior surfaces or to create structural frameworks for taller buildings like skyscrapers. Many metals can be used in building. Steel, a metal alloy with iron as its major component, is the most common choice for structural metal construction. Steel is strong and flexible and can be refined and/or treated well to last a long time. Metal’s greatest enemy is corrosion when it comes to long-term durability. Sometimes, the lower cost and greater corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys or tin can outweigh their higher density. Although brass was more popular in the past it is now restricted to particular uses or special items. Prefabricated structures like the Quonset hut feature metal prominently.


Since the invention of glass, clear windows have been used to cover small openings within buildings. These windows allowed light to enter rooms and kept out inclement weather from outside. Glass is made mostly from a mixture of silicates and sand. It is extremely fragile. Modern glass “curtainwalls” can be used for covering the entire fa├žade of a building. You can also use glass to cover a large roof structure with a “space frame”.


Ceramics can be used to make tiles, fixtures, and other items. Most ceramics are used in buildings as coverings or fixtures. Ceramic floors, walls, and counter-tops can be used as well as ceilings. Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles for covering many buildings. Ceramics was once a special form of clay-pottery firings in kilns. But it has since evolved to more technical areas.


A plastic pipe penetrates concrete floors in a Canadian highrise apartment block. Plastics can be made into films, fibers, or objects by molding them or extruding them. Plastics are named for their semi-liquid nature, which makes them malleable or can have plasticity. Plastics have a wide range of properties, including heat tolerance, hardness, and resilience. Plastics are used in nearly all industrial applications because of their adaptability and general consistency of composition.


Foamed sheet of plastic to be used as backing in firestop mortar at CIBC Bank in Toronto. In recent years, synthetic polystyrene and polyurethane foam have been utilized on a small scale. It is lightweight, easy to shape, and has excellent insulation. It is often used in a structural insulated panel, where it is sandwiched between cement and wood.

Composites Of Cement

Composites made of cement-bonded materials are a very important type of construction material. These products are made from hydrated cement paste, which binds wood and other particles or fibers to create precast building components. Binders can be made from a variety of fibrous materials, including paper and fiberglass. Natural fibers and wood are made up of soluble organic compounds such as carbohydrates, glycosides, and phenolics. These compounds have been shown to slow down cement settings. It is important to determine the compatibility of wood with cement before it is used in cement-boned composites. Wood-cement compatibility refers to the ratio of a parameter that is related to the property and a wood-cement mixture to a plain cement paste. The percentage value is commonly used to express compatibility.

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